There are four main types of EVs available on the market today - battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV).
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)
BEVs are all electric, have no internal combustion engine, and are totally dependent on plugging into the electric power grid. They require a larger battery, and a higher-power charging system (240-volt and above) is recommended. The Nissan Leaf is a BEV which is available now. It is rated by the EPA to go 73 miles on a full battery. It takes 24.8 kilowatt-hours to fully charge the battery, costing $3.22 at AMP’s average residential rate of 13 cents per kilowatt-hour. BEVs are eligible for AMP's existing EV charging discount.
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)
HEVs have a conventional engine and a small electric motor powered by electric batteries, but are fueled only with gasoline or diesel fuel. An HEV uses the small electric motor to supplement the standard internal combustion engine and increase fuel efficiency. The battery can be recharged by the gasoline engine or regenerative braking (capturing the kinetic energy of braking to charge the battery) or both. There are many HEVs on the market today, including the Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid.
(Please note that HEVs are not eligible for AMP’s existing EV charging discount.)
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
PHEVs also use a conventional engine, an electric motor, and batteries. The difference is that PHEVs can be fueled with gasoline or plugged in to recharge. They have larger battery packs and are plugged into the electric grid for charging, extending the use of electricity as a fuel. Batteries can be charged by the gasoline engine, regenerative braking, and by plugging in overnight during off–peak hours at home.
Toyota introduced the Prius PHEV in 2012. It takes 4.4 kilowatt-hours to fully charge the Prius PHEV battery, which would cost roughly $0.57 at AMP’s average residential rate of 13 cents per kilowatt-hour. In addition, Honda released the Accord PHEV in 2013. It takes 6.7 kilowatt-hours to fully charge the Accord PHEV battery, which would cost roughly $0.87 at AMP’s average residential rate of 13 cents per kilowatt-hour. PHEVs are eligible for AMP's existing EV charging discount.
Extended Range Electric Vehicles (E-REVs)
An E-REV uses an internal combustion engine to power an electric generator that charges the battery system in a linear process – the engine powers a generator that in turn charges the battery. Unlike the dual-fuel system in hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles, the electric motor is the only system that directly turns the wheels.
The Chevrolet Volt is categorized by General Motors as an E-REV. It is rated by the EPA to go 35 miles on a fully charged battery. It takes 12.9 kilowatt-hours to fully charge the battery, which would cost roughly $1.68 at AMP’s average residential rate of 13 cents per kilowatt-hour. E-REVs are eligible for AMP's existing EV charging discount.